Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).
Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck
Last Edited: 2014-10-07 08:42:41
Interviews, Email, and Other Personal Communication
No personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase "personal communication," and the date of the communication in your main text only.
(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).
A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).
Basic reference list format:
Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.
Note: If a movie or video tape is not available in wide distribution, add the following to your citation after the country of origin: (Available from Distributor name, full address and zip code).
A Motion Picture or Video Tape with International or National Availability
Smith, J. D. (Producer), & Smithee, A. F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.
A Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited Availability
Harris, M. (Producer), & Turley, M. J. (Director). (2002). Writing labs: A history [Motion picture]. (Available from Purdue University Pictures, 500 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907)
Television Broadcast or Series Episode
Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of broadcast or copyright). Title of broadcast [Television broadcast or Television series]. In P. Producer (Producer). City, state of origin: Studio or distributor.
Single Episode of a Television Series
Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In P. Producer (Producer), Series title. City, state of origin: Studio or distributor.
Wendy, S. W. (Writer), & Martian, I. R. (Director). (1986). The rising angel and the falling ape [Television series episode]. In D. Dude (Producer), Creatures and monsters. Los Angeles, CA: Belarus Studios.
Important, I. M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The nightly news hour [Television broadcast]. New York, NY: Central Broadcasting Service.
A Television Series
Bellisario, D. L. (Producer). (1992). Exciting action show [Television series]. Hollywood, CA: American Broadcasting Company.
Songwriter, W. W. (Date of copyright). Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from song writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date).
Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London, England: Big Pig Music Limited.
For more about citing audiovisual media, see pages 209-210 of the APA Publication Manual 6th Edition, second printing.
For information about citing legal sources in your reference list, see the Westfield State College page on Citing Legal Materials in APA Style.
References are not limited to print and online materials, even interviews can serve as useful source of information. This resource is classified under personal communications along with private letters, memos, telephone conversations, and some electronic communications such as e-mail or posts on discussion groups and online bulletin boards.
The American Psychological Association (APA) citation system presents different ways of citing interviews, which will comprehensively be discussed in this article. APA interview citation basically depends on the nature of the interview. So, let’s begin with the guides and formats of citing an informational interview, and later we will move on to third-party interview citation.
Table of Content
Informational interview provides non-recoverable data; hence it is not cited in the reference list and is only included in the in-text citations.
Basic Format: (A. A. Last name of Interviewee, personal communication, Date)
A. A. Last name of Interviewee (personal communication, Date)
Examples: 1st citation
(V.-G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998)
V.-G. Nguyen (personal communication, September 28, 1998)
- The date has to be written in this order: month, day, and year.
- Personal communication is indicated within the parenthesis before the date.
- If the name of the author is written within the text, write only personal communication and the date inside the parenthesis.
- In the subsequent citations, only include the last name of the interviewee and year.
In this part, you will learn the details of third party interview citation with specific guides for in-text citation and reference list, as well as formats and examples.
Unlike informational interviews, recoverable interviews from archives, multimedia, and publications are listed in both in-text citation and reference list. For interviews published online or in print, follow the appropriate guides and format for a specific reference (e.g. magazine, journal, and blog post). In some cases, you can combine different elements that correspond to a certain source in order to provide the readers with the essential information to locate the reference.
- In-text citation is usually written in a parenthesis with the last name of the author and year separated by a comma.
- If the last name of the author is included within the text, you only have to write the year inside the parenthesis.
- The author’s name or the interviewee is reversed in the reference list with the last name first followed by the initials.
- Include the name of the interviewer when citing the reference.
- For interviews with no formal title, write “Interview by (Name of the Interviewer)” in lieu of the title.
Interviews in Archives and Collections
Basic Format: Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of material. [Description of material]. Name of Collection (Call number, Box number, File name or number, etc.). Name of Repository, Location.
Recorded Interview in an Archive
Example: Smith, M. B. (1989, August 12). Interview by C. A. Kiesler [Tape recording]. President’s Oral History Project. American Psychological Association. APA Archives, Washington, DC.
Interview Transcription (no recording available)
Example: Sparkman, C. F. (1973). An oral history with Dr. Colley F. Sparkman/Interviewer: Orley B. Caudill. Mississippi Oral History Program (Vol. 289), University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg.
Basic Format: Author. (Year, Month Day of Interview). Title of Interview. Interview by Interviewer’s Initials and Last Name. In Producer’s Last Name, Initials. Title of broadcast or series [Television broadcast]. City of origin: Studio or Distributor.
Example: Williams, R. (2007, June 3). Interview by L. King. Larry King Live [Television broadcast]. Los Angeles: Cable News Network.
Interview Online (audio clip)
Basic Format: Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of Interview(Interviewer) [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
Example: Edleman, M. W. (2004, October 21). Marian Wright Edelman: Bush leaving kids behind (T. Smiley, Interviewer) [Audio file]. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4120281