Great Britain Geographical Essays On Success

Author(s):Inkster, Ian
Hill, Jeff
Griffin, Colin
Rowbotham, Judith
Reviewer(s):Riello, Giorgio

Published by EH.NET (February 2002)


Ian Inkster, Colin Griffin, Jeff Hill and Judith Rowbotham, editors, The Golden Age: Essays in British Social and Economic History, 1850-1870. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000. xix + 284 pp. ?44.00, $79.95 (cloth), ISBN: 0-7546-0114-5.

Reviewed for EH.NET by Giorgio Riello, Department of History, Open University and Department of History, University College London.

The Victorian age has too often been analyzed by contrasting an early period of booming economy and thriving performance and a later period of ‘decline.’ The early 1870s were a moment of confrontation between a no-longer dynamic British economy and increasingly successful new countries such as Germany and the United States. The economic splendor of the Golden Age came to an end and Britain only slowly understood its weak position, its internal social problems and a certain degree of paralysis that affected British institutions in the second phase of industrialization.

This collection of short essays is an interesting, though not always exciting, contribution to a redefinition of the economic and social changes affecting Britain in the period between 1850 and 1870. The interest of these essays relates mainly to the subject they are investigating. While during the 1980s and 1990s the post-1870s British ‘declinism’ has been a hit in British historiography, the same cannot be said for the ‘Golden Age’ of early Victorian Britain. Studies by Dintenfass, Kirby, Elbaum and Lazonick, McCloskey, Sanderson, Wiener and others have substantially reduced the importance attached to the decline of the last quarter of the nineteenth century. It is therefore not surprising to find that this book follows the same formula, underplaying the importance of an early economic boom.

Most of the essays, including the introductory essays by Ian Inkster and Harold Perkin, underline how 1850 can be considered the conclusion of a period of early industrialization. The 1851 Great Exhibition, for instance, is presented as the culmination of a heroic period of British history in several essays, but at the same time it does not appear to be the starting point of anything new. Most essays in this book are able to provide a complex image for a complex historical period. Far from being either a period of success or a period of contemplation of achieved results, the golden patina is made up of light and dark. The resulting image for the reader illustrates a much more ‘un-balanced’ period than previously thought.

The book is very diverse in nature. Eighteen essays are divided into four parts, plus two good introductory chapters. Not all essays are at the same qualitative level. Although the result of a series of seminars at Nottingham Trent University, the various papers are not always well connected to each other. The first three parts of the book examine classic themes such as ‘industry’ (four essays on coalmining; agriculture; cotton; and an extremely well done essay on electricity), ‘technology’ (three essays on Michael Faraday, the 1867 Paris Exhibition; and invention and patenting) and ‘social institutions’ (five essays on workers and the Great Exhibition; technical associations and the Great Exhibition; the cotton trade and social change; hiring fairs in Yorkshire; and crime). This very traditional thematic division is complemented by a fourth part on ‘gender’ (four essays on women workers in rural England; women and sexual assault; domesticity and Lancashire dialect poetry; and popular biography and masculine identity). The thematic variety achieved through eighteen essays would have been more suitable for a longer book. There is the clear feeling that some essays could have been extended beyond fifteen pages.

The volume is enjoyable, thorough and in many areas well attuned to the recent historiographical debate. It pulls together new historical research within the wide frame of an important nineteenth-century period. It also explicitly makes no attempt to give any pre-established explanation or paradigm. As Ian Inkster states in his introduction “the essays in this volume go beyond a celebration of success into the construction of an interpretation of industrial Britain which emphasises social explanation as well as social effects and which unravels linkages between institutions, industries and technologies” (p. 5). However these achievements can be partially questioned on a geographical level. Although the title refers to Britain, Wales, Scotland and Ireland are very much ignored or — perhaps — assimilated into a very anglocentric perspective. Similarly neither a British imperialistic perspective nor an international vision of British affairs is included here. At the opposite end of the spectrum the book provides a quite unique local focus with essays on Lancashire and Yorkshire. Other essays provide a high degree of geographical detail.

On a temporal level the book has to face the problem of dealing with a restricted period in time. If this suits essays dealing with particular events easily localized in time, it creates problems for other essays. Nearly half of the essays here included, stretch either backward or forward in time in a need “to capture a slightly longer trend” (p. 121). This volume does not directly challenge any established interpretation of the golden age of British history. However it provides a useful series of ideas in order to understand British society, culture and economy in the mid-nineteenth century. From the perspective of an historian of the eighteenth-century, it could have said much more on links with an earlier period, part of the so-called long eighteenth century. This could have allowed the juxtaposition of the period 1850-70 not only with the following period of crisis but also with an earlier period of important economic development and social change.

Giorgio Riello is a Research Assistant at the Charles Booth Centre at the Open University. He is also completing his PhD thesis at University College London.

Subject(s):Social and Cultural History, including Race, Ethnicity and Gender
Geographic Area(s):Europe
Time Period(s):19th Century

United Kingdom, island country located off the northwestern coast of mainland Europe. The United Kingdom comprises the whole of the island of Great Britain—which contains England, Wales, and Scotland—as well as the northern portion of the island of Ireland. The name Britain is sometimes used to refer to the United Kingdom as a whole. The capital is London, which is among the world’s leading commercial, financial, and cultural centres. Other major cities include Birmingham, Liverpool, and Manchester in England, Belfast and Londonderry in Northern Ireland, Edinburgh and Glasgow in Scotland, and Swansea and Cardiff in Wales.

The origins of the United Kingdom can be traced to the time of the Anglo-Saxon king Athelstan, who in the early 10th century ce secured the allegiance of neighbouring Celtic kingdoms and became “the first to rule what previously many kings shared between them,” in the words of a contemporary chronicle. Through subsequent conquest over the following centuries, kingdoms lying farther afield came under English dominion. Wales, a congeries of Celtic kingdoms lying in Great Britain’s southwest, was formally united with England by the Acts of Union of 1536 and 1542. Scotland, ruled from London since 1603, formally was joined with England and Wales in 1707 to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain. (The adjective “British” came into use at this time to refer to all the kingdom’s peoples.) Ireland came under English control during the 1600s and was formally united with Great Britain through the Act of Union of 1800. The republic of Ireland gained its independence in 1922, but six of Ulster’s nine counties remained part of the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland. Relations between these constituent states and England have been marked by controversy and, at times, open rebellion and even warfare. These tensions relaxed somewhat during the late 20th century, when devolved assemblies were introduced in Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Nonetheless, even with the establishment of a power-sharing assembly after referenda in both Northern Ireland and the Irish republic, relations between Northern Ireland’s unionists (who favour continued British sovereignty over Northern Ireland) and nationalists (who favour unification with the republic of Ireland) remained tense into the 21st century.

The United Kingdom has made significant contributions to the world economy, especially in technology and industry. Since World War II, however, the United Kingdom’s most prominent exports have been cultural, including literature, theatre, film, television, and popular music that draw on all parts of the country. Perhaps Britain’s greatest export has been the English language, now spoken in every corner of the world as one of the leading international mediums of cultural and economic exchange.

The United Kingdom retains links with parts of its former empire through the Commonwealth. It also benefits from historical and cultural links with the United States and is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Moreover, the United Kingdom became a member of the European Union in 1973. Many Britons, however, were sometimes reluctant EU members, holding to the sentiments of the great wartime prime ministerWinston Churchill, who sonorously remarked, “We see nothing but good and hope in a richer, freer, more contented European commonalty. But we have our own dream and our own task. We are with Europe, but not of it. We are linked, but not comprised. We are interested and associated, but not absorbed.” Indeed, in June 2016, in a referendum on whether the United Kingdom should remain in the EU, 52 percent of British voters chose to leave. That set the stage for the U.K. to become the first country to do so, pending the negotiations between the U.K. and the EU on the details of the separation.


The United Kingdom comprises four geographic and historical parts—England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom contains most of the area and population of the British Isles—the geographic term for the group of islands that includes Great Britain, Ireland, and many smaller islands. Together England, Wales, and Scotland constitute Great Britain, the larger of the two principal islands, while Northern Ireland and the republic of Ireland constitute the second largest island, Ireland. England, occupying most of southern Great Britain, includes the Isles of Scilly off the southwest coast and the Isle of Wight off the southern coast. Scotland, occupying northern Great Britain, includes the Orkney and Shetland islands off the northern coast and the Hebrides off the northwestern coast. Wales lies west of England and includes the island of Anglesey to the northwest.

Apart from the land border with the Irish republic, the United Kingdom is surrounded by sea. To the south of England and between the United Kingdom and France is the English Channel. The North Sea lies to the east. To the west of Wales and northern England and to the southeast of Northern Ireland, the Irish Sea separates Great Britain from Ireland, while southwestern England, the northwestern coast of Northern Ireland, and western Scotland face the Atlantic Ocean. At its widest the United Kingdom is 300 miles (500 km) across. From the northern tip of Scotland to the southern coast of England, it is about 600 miles (1,000 km). No part is more than 75 miles (120 km) from the sea. The capital, London, is situated on the tidal River Thames in southeastern England.

The archipelago formed by Great Britain and the numerous smaller islands is as irregular in shape as it is diverse in geology and landscape. This diversity stems largely from the nature and disposition of the underlying rocks, which are westward extensions of European structures, with the shallow waters of the Strait of Dover and the North Sea concealing former land links. Northern Ireland contains a westward extension of the rock structures of Scotland. These common rock structures are breached by the narrow North Channel.

On a global scale, this natural endowment covers a small area—approximating that of the U.S. state of Oregon or the African country of Guinea—and its internal diversity, accompanied by rapid changes of often beautiful scenery, may convey to visitors from larger countries a striking sense of compactness and consolidation. The peoples who, over the centuries, have hewed an existence from this Atlantic extremity of Eurasia have put their own imprint on the environment, and the ancient and distinctive palimpsest of their field patterns and settlements complements the natural diversity.


Great Britain is traditionally divided into a highland and a lowland zone. A line running from the mouth of the River Exe, in the southwest, to that of the Tees, in the northeast, is a crude expression of this division. The course of the 700-foot (213-metre) contour, or of the boundary separating the older rocks of the north and west from the younger southeastern strata, provides a more accurate indication of the extent of the highlands.

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