Welsh Reformation Essays On Friendship

This bibliography covers, in the main, the period c.1550-1800. However, references to material from earlier and later periods are also included where in some way relevant and significant: for example, for background information or methodological perspectives.

The structure is intended simply as a rough guide. At present, listings are confined to published works written in English (or at least partly so, in the case of some of the primary sources).

Table of Contents

  1. General collections and textbooks
  2. Local and county histories
  3. Printed primary source materials
  4. Research aids, guides, reference
  5. Historiography, approaches, methods
  6. Politics, law and administration
  7. Social and economic – general
  8. Social and economic – work, industry and agriculture
  9. Society, (popular) culture and religion
  10. Crime and courts, order and disorder
  11. Women and gender
  12. Identity, culture and language

There are a number of journals dealing with Welsh history, including: Welsh History Review; Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion; Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies; Llafur: the Welsh Journal of Labour History; Journal of Welsh Religious History; and local/county history journals such as Montgomeryshire Collections and Ceredigion. There are now also a few online journal, notably the recently launched North American Journal of Welsh Studies.

General collections and textbooks

Bowen, E G (ed). Wales: a physical, historical and regional geography. London, 1957.

Davies, John. A history of Wales. (Harmondsworth, 1994).
A beautifully written, wide-ranging survey. Originally published by Penguin in Welsh (as Hanes Cymru).
Davies, R R. The age of conquest: Wales 1063-1415. (Oxford, 1991).
The textbook on medieval Wales which should be read by all early modernists for historical context.

Dodd, A H. Life in Wales. (London, 1972).

Dodd, A H. Studies in Stuart Wales. (2nd edn, Cardiff, 1971).
In some ways rather dated now, but still essential reading for Stuart politics in Wales.

Evans, E D. A history of Wales 1660-1815. (Cardiff, 1976). Useful basic text.

Herbert, Trevor and Jones, Gareth Elwyn (eds). Tudor Wales. (Cardiff, 1988).

Herbert, Trevor and Jones, Gareth Elwyn (eds). The Remaking of Wales in the Eighteenth Century. (Cardiff, 1988).
This and the preceding Tudor Wales collection consist of substantial articles on various aspects of the respective periods, with extracts of source materials and critical discussions on each. Indispensable for students at all levels of expertise. (The series also has similar collections for earlier and later periods.).
Jenkins, Geraint H. The foundations of early modern Wales, 1642-1780. (Oxford, 1993).
Includes a massive bibliography, an essential starting-point for research on the period.

Jenkins, Philip. A history of modern Wales, 1536-1990. (London, 1992).

Jones, Gareth Elwyn. Modern Wales: a concise history. (2nd edn, Cambridge, 1994).
Perhaps the best introductory textbook.
Jones, Gareth Elwyn and Smith, Dai (eds). The people of Wales. (Llandysul, 1999).
A stimulating collection of essays based on BBC radio lectures, concise and highly readable.
Jones, J Gwynfor. Early modern Wales, c.1525-1640. (Basingstoke, 1994).
Primarily a study of the gentry and their concerns during the period.

Moore, Donald. Wales in the eighteenth century. (Swansea, 1976).

Roberts, Glyn. Aspects of Welsh history. (Cardiff, 1969).

Smith, Dai. Wales: a question for history. (Bridgend, 1999).
An updated version of his Wales! Wales? Mainly concerned with the modern period, but stimulating and often thought-provoking.
Thomas, Hugh. A history of Wales, 1485-1660. (Cardiff, 1972).
Targeted mainly at A level or first year undergraduates, but a useful basic text.
Thomas, W S K. Tudor Wales. (Llandysul, 1983).
Emphasis on the political scene.
Thomas, W S K. Stuart Wales, 1603-1714. (Llandysul, 1988).
Emphasis on politics.
Williams, Glanmor. Renewal and reformation: Wales c.1415-1642. (Oxford, 1993).
Includes an extensive bibliography, an essential resource.
Williams, Gwyn A. When was Wales? (Harmondsworth, 1985).
Should be read by everyone interested in Wales, past, present and future. Provocative, stirring, quite inimitable.

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Local and county histories

Dodd, A H. A history of Wrexham. (Wrexham, 1957).

Dodd, A H. A history of Caernarvonshire, 1284-1900. (1968).

Howells Brian (ed). Early Modern Pembrokeshire, 1536-1815. (Pembrokeshire County History, vol 3, 1987).

Humphreys, Melvin. The crisis of community, Montgomeryshire 1680-1815. (Cardiff, 1996).

Hurdsman, C Neville. A history of the parish of Chirk. (Wrexham, 1996).
A thematic history by a local enthusiast of a fascinating border region of north-eastern Wales, making extensive use of local archives.

John, A H and Williams, Glanmor (eds). Glamorgan County History, vol 5: Industrial Glamorgan from 1700-1970. (Cardiff, 1980).

Roberts, Dewi. The old villages of Denbighshire and Flintshire. (Llanrwst, 1999).

Williams, Glanmor. Glamorgan County History, vol 4: Early Modern Glamorgan. (1974).

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Printed primary source materials

Baker, W H. ‘The Wisewood fences’. Presenting Monmouthshire, 33 (1973).
Enclosure riots in the early 18th century, recorded in a local diary.
Chapman, Murray Ll (ed). Criminal proceedings in the Montgomeryshire court of Great Sessions: transcripts of Commonwealth gaol files. (Aberystwyth, 1996).
A labour of love and stimulating introduction to the richness and variety of the Great Sessions records.
Davie, J H (ed). The letters of Lewis, Richard, William and John Morris of Anglesey, 1728-1765. (2 vols, Aberystwyth, 1907-9).
The letters of these remarkable brothers are written in a mixture of English and Welsh.
Davies, W Lloyd. ‘The riot at Denbigh, 1795’. Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, 4 (1927).
Home Office correspondence relating to an episode of violent food/conscription riots.
Denning, R T W (ed). The diary of William Thomas of Michaelston-super-ely, St Fagans, Glamorgan, 1762-1795. (Cardiff, 1995).
The 30-year diary of an irascible, puritanical schoolteacher in a Welsh village: quite marvellous.
Howells, B E and Howells, K A (eds). Pembrokeshire Life: 1572-1843. (Pembrokeshire Record Society, 1972).
Collected letters.

Hughes, Edward. ‘The letters of chief justice Spencer Cowper from the north Wales circuit 1717-19’. Trans. Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, (1955).

Humphreys, Melvin. ‘The Llanidloes riot of 1721’. Montgomeryshire Collections, 75 (1987).
Transcripts from Great Sessions records concerning disturbances related to elections.

Owen, Henry (ed). The description of Pembrokeshire by George Owen. (4 vols., London, 1892-1936).

Owen, Hugh (ed). Additional letters of the Morrises of Anglesey (1735-1780).Y Commrodor (1947-9).

Owen, Hugh and Griffith, J E. ‘The diary of William Bulkeley of Brynddu, Anglesey’. Trans. Anglesey Antiquarian Society, (1931).
A wonderful source for every aspect of eighteenth-century life on Anglesey. Personal favourites include the descriptions of local football matches: definitely not FA rules.

Owen, Hugh. ‘The diary of Bulkely of Dronwy, Anglesey, 1630-1636’. Trans. Anglesey Antiquarian Society, (1937).

Owen, Leonard. ‘The letters of an Anglesey Parson, 1712-32’. Trans. Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, (1961).
Includes a fascinating letter on a local food riot in which women were prominent.

Pratt, D (ed). Calendar of the Flintshire Quarter Sessions records 1747-52. (Hawarden, 1983).

Smith, W J. ‘The Salusburies as maintainers of murderers – a Chirk Castle view, 1599’. National Library of Wales Journal, 7 (1951-52).

Williams, W O (ed). Calendar of the Caernarvonshire Quarter Sessions records, vol 1 1541-1558. (Caernarvon, 1956).
Among the earliest surviving Quarter Sessions records for either England or Wales, calendared in some detail with a useful introduction.

Williams-Jones, Keith (ed). Calendar of the Merioneth Quarter Sessions rolls, vol 1 1733-65. (Aberystwyth, 1965).

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Research aids, guides, reference

The dictionary of Welsh biography down to 1940. (London, 1959).

Chapman, Murray Ll. ‘The records of the courts of Great Sessions for Wales’, in Welsh Family History: a guide to research, ed John Rowlands et al.

Davies, J Conway. ‘The records of the Church in Wales’. National Library of Wales Journal, 4 (1945-6).

Griffiths, G M. ‘The Chirk Castle MSS and documents’. National Library of Wales Journal, 8 (1954).

Howell, B E. ‘The historical demography of Wales: some notes on sources’. Local Historian, 10 (1973).

Jones, Philip H. A bibliography of the history of Wales. (3rd edn, Cardiff, 1989). (microfiche).

National Library of Wales. Guide to the department of manuscripts and records. (Aberystwyth, 1994).
An overview of the manuscript collections, estate papers, public records, etc held in the NLW.
Parry, Glyn. A guide to the records of Great Sessions in Wales. (Aberystwyth, 1995).
A monumental and essential work for anyone planning to work with these records.
Rowlands, John et al. Welsh family history: a guide to research. (Llandysul, 1983).
Good introduction to a wide range of sources for Welsh history – its usefulness is certainly not confined to family historians.

Owen, D Huw. ‘Welsh local and family history’, in David Hey (ed), The Oxford companion to Local and Family History. (Oxford, 1996).

Rees, Eiluned. A catalogue of Welsh books and books printed in Wales 1546-1820. (Aberystwyth, 1987).

Roberts, Michael and Simone Clark. ‘Women and gender in early modern Wales: a guide to sources and further reading’ in idem (eds), Women and gender in early modern Wales (Cardiff, 2000).

Williams, C J and Watts-Williams, J. Cofrestri plwyf cymru/parish registers of Wales. (Aberystwyth, 1986).

Williams, John. Digest of Welsh historical statistics. (2 vols, Welsh Office, 1985).

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Historiography, approaches, methods

Beddoe, Deirdre. ‘Towards a Welsh women’s history’. Llafur, 3 (1981).

Evans, Neil. ‘Writing the social history of modern Wales: approaches, achievements and problems’. Social History, 17 (1992).

Jenkins, Philip. ‘Chapter 20: historical writing in Wales’, in his History of modern Wales 1536-1990.

John, Angela V. ‘Sitting on the Severn Bridge: Wales and British history’. History Workshop Journal, 30 (1990).

Robbins, Keith. ‘More than a footnote? Wales in British history’. North American Journal of Welsh Studies, Winter 2001, online article.

Roberts, Michael. ‘Another letter from a far country: the prehistory of labour, or the history of work in preindustrial Wales’. Llafur, 5 (1989).

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Politics, law and administration

Brady, Ciaran. ‘Comparable histories: Tudor reform in Wales and Ireland’ in Steven G Ellis and Sarah Barker (eds), Conquest and union: fashioning a British state 1485-1725, (1995).

Dodd, A H. ‘The pattern of politics in Stuart Wales’. Trans Historical Society of Cymmrodorion, (1948).

Dodd, A H. ‘Tuning the Welsh bench, 1680’. National Library of Wales Journal, 6 (1949-50).

Dodd, A H. ‘The Civil War in east Denbighshire’. Trans. Denbighshire Historical Society, 3 (1954).

Jones, J Gwynfor. Law, order and government in Caernarvonshire, 1558-1640: Justices of the Peace and the gentry. (Cardiff, 1996).

Lewis, Thomas H. The administration of justice in the Welsh county in its relation to other organs of justice, higher and lower’. Trans. Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, (1945).

Lewis, Thomas H. ‘The justice of the peace in Wales’. Trans. Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, (1943-44).

Owen, Gareth H. ‘Family politics in Elizabethan Merionethshire’. Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, 18 (1959).

Phillips, J R S. The justices of the peace in Wales and Monmouthshire, 1541 to 1689. (Cardiff, 1975).

Skeel, Caroline A J. The council in the marches of Wales. (London, 1904).

Stuart-Jones, E H. The last invasion of Britain. (Cardiff, 1950).
The attempted French invasion of Pembrokeshire in 1798.

Thomas, Peter D G. ‘Society, government and politics’ in Donald Moore (ed), Wales in the eighteenth century. (Swansea, 1976).

Thomas, Peter D G. ‘Sir Hugh Williams and Lady Bulkeley: love and politics in mid-eighteenth-century Anglesey’. Trans. Anglesey Antiquarian Society, (1992).

Thomas, Peter D G. Politics in eighteenth-century Wales. (Cardiff, 1998).

Tucker, Norman. North Wales in the civil war. (Wrexham, 1992).

Williams, W R. The history of the Great Sessions in Wales, 1542-1830. (Brecknock, 1899).
A useful resource especially for biographical material on Great Sessions personnel.

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Social and economic – general

Baker-Jones, D L. ‘Notes on the social life of Carmarthenshire during the eighteenth century’. Trans. Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, (1963).

Carter, Harold. ‘The growth and decline of Welsh towns’, in Donald Moore (ed), Wales in the eighteenth century. (Swansea, 1976).

Davies, L T and Edwards, A. Welsh life in the eighteenth century. (London, 1939).
Still a useful and readable book; often quotes extensively from original sources.

Dodd, A H. ‘The old poor law in north Wales’. Archaeologia Cambrensis, 7th ser., 6 (1926).

Evans, G Nesta. Social life in mid-eighteenth century Anglesey. (Cardiff, 1936).

Griffiths, Matthew. ‘Land, life and belief: Wales 1415-1642’, in Gareth Jones and Dai Smith (eds), The people of Wales.

Howell, David. ‘Welsh agricultural neighbourhoods in the eighteenth century’, in C Richmond and I Harvey (eds), Recognitions: Essays presented to Edmund Fryde. (Aberystwyth, 1996).

Howell, David. ‘Society, 1660-1793’, in Brian Howells (ed), Early Modern Pembrokeshire, 1536-1815.

Howell, David W. Patriarchs and parasites: the gentry of south-west Wales in the eighteenth century. (Cardiff, 1986).

Howell, David W. The rural poor in eighteenth-century Wales. (Cardiff, 2000).

Howells, Brian. ‘Social and agrarian change in early modern Cardiganshire’. Ceredigion, 7 (1974-5).

Howells, John. ‘Haverfordwest and the plague, 1652’. Welsh History Review, 12 (1984-5).

Jenkins, Philip. ‘A new source for the history of Monmouthshire in the eighteenth century’. Monmouthshire Antiquary, 4 (1980).

Jenkins, Philip. ‘Between two revolutions: Wales 1642-1780’, in Gareth Jones and Dai Smith (eds), The people of Wales.

Jenkins, Philip. The making of a ruling class: the Glamorgan gentry 1640-1790. (London, 1983).

Jones, Francis. ‘The old families of Wales’, in Donald Moore (ed), Wales in the eighteenth century (Swansea, 1976).

Jones, J Gwynfor (ed). Class, community and culture in Tudor Wales. (Cardiff, 1989).

Jones, J Gwynfor. The Welsh gentry 1536-1640: images of status, honour and authority. (Cardiff, 1998).

Owen, G Dyfnallt. Elizabethan Wales: the social scene. (Cardiff, 1964).

Owen, L. ‘The population of Wales in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries’. Trans. Historical Society of Cymmrodorion, (1959).

Skeel, Caroline A J. ‘Social and economic conditions in Wales and the Marches in the early seventeenth century’. Trans. Historical Society of Cymmrodorion, (1916-17).

Teale, Adrian. ‘The battle against poverty in north Flintshire, c.1660-1714’. Journal of Flintshire Historical Society, 31 (1983-84).

Thomas, Anita M. ‘Wrexham in the early eighteenth century’. Trans. Denbighshire Historical Sociey, 35 (1986).

Thomas, B B. The Old Order: based on the diary of Elizabeth Baker, Dolgelley 1778-1786. (Cardiff, 1945).

Williams, Moelwyn I. ‘Economic and social history of Glamorgan 1660-1760’, in Glanmor Williams (ed) Glamorgan County History, vol 4, Early Modern Glamorgan.

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Social and economic – work, industry and agriculture

Carr, A D. ‘The Welsh worker in the fourteenth century: an introduction to labour prehistory’. Llafur, 5 (1988).

Davies, D J. The economic history of south Wales prior to 1800. (Cardiff, 1933).

Dodd, A H. The industrial revolution in north Wales. (2nd edn, Cardiff, 1951).

Emery, Frank. ‘Wales’, in Joan Thirsk (ed), The agrarian history of England and Wales, vol V: 1640-1750. 1. Regional farming systems. (Cambridge, 1984).

Jenkins, J G. The Welsh woollen industry. (Cardiff, 1969).

Jenkins, J Geraint. ‘The woollen industry’ in Donald Moore (ed), Wales in the eighteenth century (1976).

Lewis, W J. Lead mining in Wales. (Cardiff, 1967).

Osborne, B. ‘Glamorgan agriculture in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries’. National Library of Wales Journal, 20 (1977-8).

Roberts, Michael. ‘The empty ladder: work and its meanings in early modern Cardiganshire’. Llafur, 6 (1995).
Opens up previously unexplored possibilities for the history of work in early modern Wales.

Thomas, D Lleufer. ‘Lewis Morris in Cardiganshire’. Y Cymmrodor, 15 (1901). (Lead-mining).

Williams, Gareth Haulfryn. ‘Farming in Stuart Caernarfonshire’. Trans. Caernarvonshire Historical Society, 42 (1981).

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Society, (popular) culture and religion

Clark, Stuart and Morgan, P T. ‘Religion and magic in Elizabethan Wales: Robert Holland’s Dialogue on Witchcraft’. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 27 (1976).

Davies, D Leslie. ‘The black arts in Wrexham’. Trans. Denbighshire Historical Society, 19 (1970).

Davies, Jonathan Ceredig. Welsh folklore. (Aberystwyth, 1911).

Evans, Nesta. Religion and politics in mid-eighteenth century Anglesey. (Cardiff, 1953).

Jenkins, Geraint H. ‘Popular beliefs in Wales from the Restoration to Methodism’. Bull. Board Celtic Studies, 27 (1978).

Jenkins, Geraint H. Literature, religion and society in Wales 1660-1730. (Cardiff, 1978).

Jenkins, Geraint H. ‘ “The sweating astrologer”: Thomas Jones the almanacer’, in R R Davies et al (eds), Welsh society and nationhood: historical essays presented to Glanmor Williams, (Cardiff, 1984).

Jenkins, Philip. ‘Times and seasons: the cycles of the year in early modern Glamorgan’. Morgannwg: Jnl. of Glamorgan History, 30 (1986).

Jones, Alun R. ‘”Vermin [who] creep into all corners through the least crevices”: Lewis Morris and the Methodists’. Trans Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, (1998).

Jones, G Penrhyn. ‘Some aspects of the medical history of Denbighshire’. Trans Denbighshire Historical Society, 8 (1959).

Jones, Glyn Penrhyn. ‘Folk medicine in eighteenth-century Wales’. Folklife, 7 (1968).

Jones, T Gwynn. Welsh folklore. (London, 1930).

Jones, T J R. ‘Welsh interlude players of the eighteenth century’. Theatre Notebook, 2 (1948).

Lewis, W J. ‘The Cardiganshire miners’ drinking song’. Ceredigion, 2 (1952).

Luxton, Brian C. ‘William Jenkin, the wizard of Cadoxton-juxta-Barry’. Morgannwg 24 (1980).

Morgan, Derec Llwyd. The great awakening in Wales. (London, 1988).

Nuttal, G F. Howell Harris 1714-1773: the last enthusiast. (Cardiff, 1965).

Owen, Trefor M. Welsh folk customs. (4th edn, Llandysul, 1987).

Owen, Trefor M. The customs and traditions of Wales. (Cardiff, 1991).
A great little book, containing an amazing amount of information for its size.

Peate, C Iorwerth. ‘The Denbigh cockpit and cockfighting in Wales’. Trans. Denbs Historical Society 19 (1970).

Roberts, G M. ‘Howel Harris and Montgomeryshire’. Montgomeryshire Collections 63 (1973-4).

Scourfield, E. ‘References to y ceffyl pren (the wooden horse) in south west Wales’. Folklore 87 (1976).

Stone, Lawrence. ‘Kinship and forced marriage in early eighteenth-century Wales’. Welsh History Review 17 (1995).

Suggett, Richard. ‘Festivals and social structure in early modern Wales’. Past and Present 152 (1996).
An important article on the social significance of the gwylmabsantau (parish wake) in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Waddington, H M. ‘Games and athletics in bygone Wales’. Trans Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (1954).

Watkin-Jones, A. ‘The interludes of Wales in the eighteenth century’. Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, 4 (1928).

White, Eryn M. ‘ “The world, the flesh and the devil” and the early Methodist societies of south-west Wales’. Trans Historical Society of Cymmrodorion (1996).

Williams, G J. ‘Glamorgan customs in the eighteenth century’. Gwerin 1 (1956-7).

Williams, Gareth. ‘ “How’s the tenors in Dowlais?” Hegemony, harmony and popular culture in England and Wales 1600-1900’. Llafur 5 (1988).

Williams, Gareth. ‘Sport and society in Glamorgan 1750-1980’, in Prys Morgan (ed), Glamorgan County History, v 6, Glamorgan Society 1780-1980. (1988).

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Crime and courts, order and disorder

Chapman, Murray Ll. ‘A sixteenth-century trial for felony in the court of great sessions for Montgomeryshire’. Montgomeryshire Collections, 78 (1990).

Davies, Russell. Secret sins: sex, violence and society in Carmarthenshire, 1870-1920. (Cardiff, 1996).

Griffiths, G Millwyn. ‘Glimpses of Cardiganshire in sessions records’. Ceredigion 5 (1966).

Griffiths, G Millwyn. ‘Glimpses of Denbigh in the records of the court of Great Sessions’. Trans. Denbigh Historical Society (1973).

Gruffydd, K Lloyd. ‘The vale of Clwyd corn riots of 1740’. Journal Flintshire Historical Society 27 (1975-6).

Jenkins, David. ‘ “Rhyfel y Sais Bach” ‘. Ceredigion 1 (1950).
A document relating to ‘the war of the little Englishman’, a sustained anti-enclosure campaign, including dramatically violent action, by a Ceredigion community in the early 19th century. See also the articles by D J V Jones and David Williams which both include extensive extracts of primary source materials.

Jones, David J V. ‘More Light on “Rhyfel y Sais Bach” ‘. Ceredigion 5 (1964).

Jones, D J V. ‘The corn riots in Wales, 1793-1801’. Welsh History Review 2 (1965).

Jones, David J V. Before Rebecca: popular protests in Wales 1793-1835. (London, 1973). A classic study.

Jones, David J V. ‘Crime, protest and community in nineteenth-century Wales’. Llafur 1 (1974).

Jones, David J V. ‘Distress and discontent in Cardiganshire, 1814-1819’. Ceredigion 5 (1964-7).

Jones, David J V. ‘Life and death in eighteenth-century Wales: a note’. Welsh History Review 10 (1980-1).
An exploratory article on the use of the death sentence in 18th century Wales, suggesting patterns not dissimilar to those in England.

Jones, David J V. Rebecca’s children: a study of rural society, crime and protest. (Oxford, 1989).

Jones, David J V. Crime in nineteenth-century Wales. (Cardiff, 1992).
A masterly study, combining detailed statistical analyses with qualitative perspectives.
Jones, E Vaughan. ‘Sheep stealing at Llangelynin 1792’. Journal of Merioneth Historical and Record Society 7 (1976).
A brief but interesting look at a subject which (considering the ongoing importance of sheep and livestock farming to the Welsh economy) has largely been neglected in favour of more glamorous topics.

Jones, Francis. ‘The affair of Cefn Arthen’. Brycheiniog 15 (1971).

Jones, J Gwynfor. ‘The Welsh language in local government: justices of the peace and the courts of quarter sessions’, in Geraint H Jenkins (ed), The Welsh language before the Industrial Revolution (Cardiff, 1997).

Jones, Rosemary A N. ‘Popular culture, policing and the ‘disappearance’ of the Ceffyl Pren in Cardigan, c 1837-1850′. Ceredigion, 11 (1988-9).
The ceffyl pren was the main version in south west Wales of the ‘charivari’, at its height during the 1830s, just before (and clearly cultural cousin to) the Rebecca Riots.

Jones, Tim. Rioting in north-east Wales, 1536-1918. (Wrexham, 1997).

Martin, Joanna. ‘Private enterprise versus manorial rights: mineral property disputes in eighteenth-century Glamorgan’. Welsh History Review 9 (1978).

Minkes, John. ‘Hanging not punishment enough: crime and justice in eighteenth-century Wales’. Planet 90 (1991-2).
A short article examining the patterns of crime recorded in the Great Sessions archives.

Morgan, Prys. ‘The Glais boundary dispute, 1756’. Glamorgan Historian (1973).

Powell, Nia M W. ‘Crime and the community in Denbighshire during the 1590s: the evidence of the records of the Court of Great Sessions’, in J G Jones (ed), Class, community and culture in Tudor Wales.
Examines the Great Sessions records for the light they throw on a decade of distress and tension.

Smith, Llinos Beverley. ‘Disputes and settlements in medieval Wales: the role of arbitration’. English Historical Review , (1991).

Suggett, Richard. ‘Slander in early modern Wales’. Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, 39 (1992).

Suggett, Richard. ‘The Welsh language and the court of Great Sessions’ in Geraint H Jenkins (ed), The Welsh language before the Industrial Revolution (Cardiff, 1997).

Williams, David. ‘ “Rhyfel y Sais Bach”: an enclosure riot on Mynydd Bach’. Ceredigion 2 (1952).

Williams, David. The Rebecca riots: a study in agrarian discontent. (Cardiff, 1971).

Williams, Gwyn A. The Merthyr rising. (Cardiff, 1988).

Williams, J Gwynn. ‘Witchcraft in seventeenth-century Flintshire’ (2 parts). Journal Flintshire Historical Society 26-27 (1974-6).
Includes extensive extracts of court records, and considers possible reasons for the relative rarity of accusations of witchcraft in Wales.

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Women and gender

Betts, Sandra (ed). Our daughters’ land past and present. (Cardiff, 1996).

Clarke, Simone. ‘The construction of genteel sensibilities: the socialization of daughters of the gentry in 17th- and 18th-century Wales’, in Our Daughters’ Land, ed Sandra Betts.

Davies, Leonard and Edwards, Averyl. Women in Wales. (London, 1935).

Holt, Constance. Welsh women: an annotated bibliography of women in Wales and women of Welsh descent in America. (New Jersey, 1993).

John, Angela V. Our mothers land: chapters in Welsh women’s history 1830-1939. (Cardiff, 1991).
A pioneering collection of essays, the first of its kind to be devoted to Welsh women’s history.

John, Angela V. ‘A miner struggle? Women’s protests in Welsh mining history’. Llafur 4 (1982?).

Mavor, Elizabeth. The ladies of Llangollen: a study in romantic friendship. (London, 1971).

Morgan, Gerald. ‘Women’s wills in west Wales, 1600-1750’. Trans Historical Society of Cymmrodorion (1992).

Morgan, Gerald. ‘Dowries for daughters in west Wales, 1500-1700’. Welsh History Review 17 (1995).

Ramage, Helen Myfanwy. ‘The will of Elizabeth Jones of Llangoed’. Trans Anglesey Antiquarian Society (1967).

Roberts, Michael. ‘Gender, work and socialization in Wales, c.1450-c.1850’, in Sandra Betts (ed), Our Daughters’ Land.
Wide-ranging in use of sources and generously footnoted, full of suggestive ideas for future research.
Roberts, Michael and Simone Clark (eds). Women and gender in early modern Wales. (Cardiff, 2000).
The first book devoted to this topic, a collection of ground-breaking articles.

Swett, Katharine Warner. ‘Widowhood, custom and property in early modern north Wales’. Welsh History Review 18 (1996).

Thomas, B B. ‘Elizabeth Baker and her diary’. National Library of Wales Journal

3 (1943-44).

White, Eryn M. ‘ “Little female lambs”: women in the Methodist societies of Carmarthenshire, 1737-1750’. Carmarthenshire Antiquary 27 (1991).

Williams, L J and Jones, Dot. ‘Women at work in nineteenth-century Wales’. Llafur 3 (1982).

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Identity, culture and language

Bradshaw, B and Roberts, P (eds). British consciousness and identity: the making of Britain, 1533-1707. (?Oxford, 1998).

Curtis, Tony (ed). Wales: the imagined nation. Essays in cultural and national identity. .

Davies, R R et al. Welsh society and nationhood. (Cardiff, 1984).

Dodd, A H. ‘Welsh and English in east Denbighshire: a historical retrospect’. Trans Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (1940).
(cf. Pryce’s article below, which is about language use, this is also about settlement patterns).

Gruffydd, R Geraint (ed). A guide to Welsh literature, c.1530-1700. (Cardiff, 1997).

Jenkins, Geraint H (ed). The Welsh language before the Industrial Revolution. (Cardiff, 1997).
A collection of essays ranging across various language domains, placing the Welsh language in its social context during the late middle ages and early modern period, often making original and imaginative use of sources. Part of an important ongoing project on the social history of the Welsh language.

Jenkins, Philip. ‘Seventeenth-century Wales: definition and identity’, in Bradshaw and Roberts (eds) British consciousness and identity: the making of Britain, 1533-1707.

Jenkins, Philip. ‘The Anglican church and the unity of Britain: the Welsh experience, 1560-1714’ in Steven G Ellis and Sarah Barber (eds), Conquest and union: fashioning a British state, 1485-1725 (1995).

Jones, Mark Ellis. ‘ “An invidious attempt to accelerate the extinction of our language”: the abolition of the court of Great Sessions and the Welsh language’. Welsh History Review, 19 (1998).

Jones, R Merfyn. ‘Beyond identity? The reconstruction of the Welsh’. Journal of British Studies 31 (1992).

Jones, W R. ‘England against the cultural fringe: a study in cultural stereotypes’. Journal of World History, 13 (1971).

Morgan, Prys. The eighteenth-century renaissance. (Llandybie, 1981).

Pryce, W T R. ‘Welsh and English in Wales, 1750-1901’. Bulletin Board of Celtic Studies, 28 (1978).

Roberts, Peter R. ‘The Welsh language, English law and Tudor legislation’. Trans Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (1989).
Informative on the use of English and Welsh in early modern law courts (and other institutions) in Wales.

Williams, Glanmor. Religion, language and nationality in Wales. (Cardiff, 1967).

Williams, W Ogwen. ‘The survival of the Welsh language after the union of England and Wales: the first phase, 1536-42’. Welsh History Review, 2 (1964).

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This bibliography last updated 13 May 2005 by Sharon Howard

Tintern Abbey

On 22 August 1485 Henry Tudor’s army defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. Henry was of a Welsh lineage – his grandfather, Owain Tudur, belonged to an Anglesey family which had played a prominent part in Welsh politics since the days of Llywelyn the Great (1173-1240). Henry’s victory was interpreted by several commentators at the time as a victory for the Welsh nation. At last, a Welshman sat on the English throne, and it was hoped that the penal laws against the Welsh people, passed as a result of Glyndr’s war, would now be repealed. In 1536, under Henry VIII, Henry Tudor’s son, civil rights were indeed restored to the Welsh, but at the expense of incorporating their country into the English state. In the words of the Act of Union, Wales was to be ‘for ever and henceforth incorporated and annexed in this our realm of England’.

The old laws of Hywel the Good were to be abandoned, and the Welsh language – ‘a speech nothing like, nor consonant to the natural Mother tongue used within [this] realm’ – was not to be used for any legal, administrative or religious purposes. At about the same time, of course, the monasteries  – some forty of them in Wales – were dissolved; the Pope’s authority was rejected and the Church became the Church of England. From now on, the intention was that English would be the language of law, administration and religion in Wales.

It would be wholly correct to say that it was the Church – more, perhaps, out of zeal for evangelising than out of zeal for the language itself – that saved the Welsh language at this time. A number of church leaders realised that the new religion would never succeed in Wales unless it made provision in the language of the people. In 1551 William Salesbury published his translation of the readings in the Book of Common Prayer from the gospels and the epistles. In 1563, together with Richard Davies, the Bishop of St.Asaph (1560-61) and later St.David’s (1561-81), he persuaded Parliament in London to authorise a translation of the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer into Welsh.

In 1567 Salesbury published his own translation of the Book of Common Prayer and the New Testament. Richard Davies, who had assisted him with the translation of the New Testament, wrote an introduction to the work in which he argued that the new Protestant religion restored to the Welsh people their ancient Church, a Church unsullied by Rome, which had been lost in the year 777. In 1588 William Morgan, the Bishop of Llandaff (1595-1601) and later St.Asaph (1601-04), published the entire Bible in Welsh, having revised Salesbury’s translation of the New Testament and translated the Old Testament himself.

The Welsh Bible had enormous influence: it established Protestantism among the Welsh people; it preserved the high standard of written Welsh that had hitherto been the concern of the bards, and saved the language from deteriorating into a number of unconnected dialects; and it laid the foundations on which all the Welsh literature of the succeeding centuries was built.

Translators Monmument, outside St Asaph Cathedral

William Morgan’s Bible was revised for a new edition in 1620 by one of the foremost Welsh scholars of the Renaissance, Dr John Davies (c.1567-1644), the Rector of Mallwyd from 1640 until his death. John Davies’ version was, to all extents and purposes, the version of the Welsh Bible that was used until 1988, when the New Welsh Bible was published. Other important works by this able cleric were his Welsh grammar in Latin, Antiquae Linguae Britannicae … Rudimenta (1621) and his Welsh-Latin Dictionarium Duplex (1632).

To the same period belongs Edmwnd Prys (1543-1623), who was appointed Archdeacon of Meirionnydd in 1576. He was proficient in eight languages, including Hebrew, and was a competent poet in the traditional Welsh strict metres. He is remembered in particular for his Welsh metrical version of the Psalms, which he published as an appendix to Dr John Davies’ revised version of the Book of Common Prayer, which appeared in 1621. Prys’ Psalms are popular to this day among Welsh-speaking congregations.

Further research and discussion

  • What do you think would have happened to the Welsh language if the Bible had not been translated into it?
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