Essay On Jawaharlal Nehru In Punjabi Language To English Translation

Date of Birth                            27th August, 1947
Pay Scale                                Basic pay – Rs 16400/- in the scale of 16400/22400 

Academic Qualifications           M.A. (Hindi, Punjabi and Linguistics) M.Phil, PhD. (Hindi),  P.G. Diploma in
                                             Translation, P.G. Diploma in Journalism




Class / Grade







Jawaharlal Nehru University




  A- (70%)






  B+ (60%)





  1st class(65%)

Punjab University, Chandigarh




    IInd class(55%)



 P.G. Diploma in Translation

Eng. - Hindi

IInd class (55%)



 P.G.  Diploma in



 IInd class (52.5%)

Bhartiya Vidya Bhawan, New Delhi




Eng., Pol. Sci.

Aggregate (55%)

Punjab University, Chandigarh


 Prabhakar (Hons. In  Hindi)


1st class (60%)





Eng, Maths,

S.S. Phy., Hyg

IIlrd class (38%)



 Matric  (Add.)

Punjabi & Hindi

1st class (60%)




        1) Translation   2) Hindi novel   3) Indian Dalit Literature



          Hindi, Punjabi and English



1. Research Fellow in Centre of Indian Languages, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (1977-82). Completed research for-M.Phil and Ph.D. degrees and taught Hindi for one year to undergraduate and post-Graduate students (including foreigners and non-Hindi speaking  Students)


2. Hindi Officer in Corporation Bank, Bombay (1982-83) to implement  Official Languages Act of Government of India and to teach Hindi to non- Hindi knowing employees, to translate official documents, from  English to  Hindi and Vice-versa.


3. Sub-Editor in 'Jansatta', Hindi daily from New Delhi. !Po translate and sub the news, sometimes did reporting on academic and cultural activities of  Delhi (1984-85)


4. a) Lecturer in Department of Hindi, Punjabi     University, Patiala (Punjab)(1985-90).

    b)  Senior Lecturer in Department of Hindi, Punjabi University, Patiala (1990-93), to teach Hindi Literature to M.A. and M.Phil classes, to Supervise research of M.Phil and Ph.D. research scholars.

    c)  Reader in Translation Department of Hindi, GNDU, Amritsar (1994-95).

    d)  Reader in Department of Hindi, Punjabi     University, Patiala   (1996- till 12.04.05)

    e) Professor in Hindi Translation ,J.N.U.,New Delhi since 13.04.05


5. Member. of Research Board of Humanities and     Education (as outside Expert) of North East Hill University (NEHU) Shillong for 2002-04


6. Member Academic Council, Punjabi University, Patiala during 2002-03


7. Member Punjabi University Senate (Fellow) during 2002-03


1) Five year experience of research for doing M.Phil.and Ph.D. degree (1977-82)

2) Supervised/Research of three Ph.D. and eleven M.Phil. Scholars from 1985 onwards, Continues till date. Four research students working for Ph.D. degree research.

3)  Wrote many research papers along with teaching duties till date.

      a) Title of M.Phil research dissertation 'Desh Ka Vibhajan aur Punjabi Upanyas' (Partition of the Country and Punjabi Novel)

      b) Title of Ph.D. thesis 'Yashpal Ke Upanyason Mein Rajnitik Chetna' (Political Consciousness in the Novels of Yashpal).

4)   Awarded U.G.C. minor research project in 1993.

5)   Evaluated fifteen Ph.D. Theses of various Universities from all over the country, including theses from J.N.U. & D. U. Delhi. Conducted Viva-Voice examination of few Researchers out of these. Evaluated one D.Litt. theses. many M.Phil and Translation course dissertations


  M.A. Level:

 1) Hindi Novel                   

 2) Courses on Translation               

 3) Hindi Journalism

 4)  Western Poetics            

 5) Prem Chand  (Special study)                            

 6) Upendra Nath ashq  (Special study)

 7) Hindi Prose 


 M.Phil. Level:

 8) Sociology of Literature   

 9) Comparative Literature               

 10) Fiction



a) Curriculum Development:

1)  As Chairman of U.G. /P.G. Board of Studies thoroughly revised syllabuses of all classes in year 2002-2003.

2)  Participated in the drafting of syllabuses for M.Phil and M.A. Courses as member of M.Phil course committee, P.G. Board of Studies.

3) Prepared twenty plus lessons for B.A. (Hindi), M.A. (Hindi) and M.A.(Punjabi)  courses for Indira Gandhi National Open University(IGNOU) New Delhi, Punjabi University Patiala and Panjab University, Chandigarh.         

4)  Enriched University Library by recommending and getting subscribed more than forty Hindi literary periodicals and hundreds of  new standard books.

5)  Organized five national level Seminars in the University(P.U.Patiala) and published three  books as well.

 b) Cultural/ Extra-Curricular Activity

1)  As Secretary of Literary association of the Department organized Literary - functions and lectures of eminent writers.

c) Administrative Assignments:

1) Head, Department of Hindi, Punjabi University, Patiala.(2002-04).

2) As Secretary of Administrative Committee of the Department (ACD), held meetings according to University Calendar .

3) Remained Prefect of Hostel during student life.


1)  Life Member 'Bhartiya Anuvad Parishad(Delhi).

2)  Life Member, 'Indian History Congress' .

3)  Life Member 'Panjabi Bhasha Akademi', Jalandhar

4)  Life Member, 'Punjab Academy of Social Sciences, Literature and Culture', Jalandhar

5)  Life Member, Punjabi Sahit Academy, Ludhiana


1) Thirty two Books in Hindi (Twenty), Punjabi (Eight) and English (four).

2) More than five hundred-research papers/articles/book reviews/translations etc. published in reputed Hindi, Punjab and English Journals, Translation of my articles in Telgu and other languages (details given separately)

3) Telegu and Gujrati translation of Paash's poetry from Hindi translation of mine, published in book form. Many further translations in Marathi, Urdu, Bengali like languages from mine translation published in various parts of the country.


1) Awarded Sahitya Akademi National Translation Prize for translation of Punjabi poet Paash’s poetry in Hindi in year 2002.

2) Awarded Shiromani Hindi Sahityakar Award by Govt. of Punjab for year 2003.

3) Awarded Central Hindi Directorate (Human Resources Ministry) national award for non-Hindi speaking Hindi writers on editing and Hindi translation of Punjabi poet Surjit Patar for year 2001. Award presented by Prime Minister of India on 30.4.2003.

4) Honoured by Bharti Dalit Sahitya Akademi, Madhya Pradesh with 'Sant Raidass Sahitya Rattan Sanmaan' on 7th February, 2004.

5) Awarded ‘Justice Shardacharan Mitra Bhasha Setu Samman’ by ‘Apni Bhasha’ Kolkata for year-2006.

6) Honoured by Radical forum at Moga on 7th May, 2000.

7) Honoured by Paash Library Karnal on 23rd March, 2002.

8) Honoured by citizen forum at Yamunanagar on 24th March, 2002.



        1) Working on Indian Dalit Literature.                              

        2) Working  on translation and editing of eminent writers/thinkers.

        3) Interested in Hindi Literature depicting Punjabi life, supervising research mostly on such literature.



0) Organised ‘Lecture-cumTranslation’ workshop in Centre of Indian Languages,J.N.U.,New Delhi on 11th May 2oo5.

1) Organised national seminar on 'Yashpal's Novels' at Punjabi University, Patiala on 2-3 March, 2004.

2) Organised national seminar on 'Hindi Journalism' in Punjabi University Patiala on 5.2.2003.

3) Organised as Joint Convener four day National Seminar on 'Black and ..DalitLiterature: Some Recent Trends' at Indian Institute of Advanced study,  Shimla 14-17 October 1997.

4) Orgainsed as Convener a special lecture of Professor Aijaz Ahmed on 'Post-Colonial Theories and the 'Post' Condition' at Punjabi University, Patiala on 6.5.1997.

5) Organised as Secretary two days Seminar on 'Contemporary Hindi-Drama' at Punjabi University, Patiala in October 1996.

6) Organised as Organising Secretary two day National Seminar on 'M.N. Roy & the National Idea' at Punjabi University, Patiala on 16-17 September 1996.

7) Orgainsed as Convernor two day National Seminar on 'Dalit Life in Jagdish Chander's Novels' at Jalandhar on 14-15 October1995.

8) Organised 3 day National Symposium on’Dalit and Woman in Indian Literature’ At Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra on 14-16 April,1995.

9) Organised 'Rubaru' (face to face) Programmes of eminent Hindi writers-Bhisham  Sahni, Krishna Sobti and Jagdish Chander at Shimla, Chandigarh, Patiala and  Kurukshetra in 1994-95.

10)  Co-organised young writers meet of Hindi, Punjabi and English Language writers at Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla in December, 1993.

11)  Organised National Writers Conference on Paash anniversary on 9th Sept. 1989 at  Jalandhar.

12)  Organised National Writers Convention on Paash anniversary in September 2000 at Jalandhar.

13)  Organised Writers meet at Paash's birth anniversary in September 2002.

14)  Organised Panjabi writers conference on 7-8 April, 1973 at Rampura Phul. Presented paper on 'Modern Panjabi Poetry and Contemporary Reality.

15)  Organised lecture cum discussion on 31st July, 1967 at Public Library, Rampura Phul (Bathinda) to commemorate Prem Chand birth anniversary.

16)  Organised competitive seminar for students on’The City in Asian Literature’,in Collaboration with’Katha’ at SLL&CS,JNU,New Delhi on 20/10/05.

17) Organised eminent Translation theorist Mona Baker’s workshop on Translation At JNU, New Delhi on 9th January ‘06

18) Organised Chinese writer Ma Yuan’s face to face programme at JNU on 10/01/06 in collaboration with Katha.



        A) Presentations of papers/participation in seminars

1)  Paper presented in International seminar on Luxun, organised by Centre of Afro Asian Studies, J.N.U., New Delhi in November 1981, 'The Relevance of  Luxun to Indian Society' (English).

2)  Participated as delegate in International Conference on Translation', organised  by School of Languages, J.N.U., New Delhi in 1984 at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi.

3)  Presentation on Press Release (Hindi) at Indian Institution of Mass Communication, New Delhi in 1985.

4)  Presented paper on 'Creative process of political poetry in Hindi' (Panjabi) at Desh Bhagat Yaadgar Hall, Jalandhar in November, 1985.

5)   Presented paper on 'Social consciousness in Sundari (A Panjabi novel by Bhai Veer Singh)' in Hindi at Bhasha Sangam. national seminar at Allahabad in 1987.

6)  Presented paper on 'Political consciousness in Partition Novel' (English) at National Seminar organised by Centre of Linguistics and English, J.N.U., New  Delhi in March 1990.

7)  Presented paper on 'The Depiction of Punjabi oppressed classes in 'Dharti Dhan Na Apna' (A novel by Jagdish Chander) at a national seminar organised by Department of Correspondence Courses, Punjabi University, Patiala in April, 1990.           

8) Presented paper on 'Contemporary Indian Reality: Through the eyes of Panjabi  poet Paash' (English) at Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla on 29th June, 1992.

9) Presented paper on 'The Significance of Rahul Sankartyayna' (English) at Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla in October, 1993.

10) Participated in two week 'National Workshop on Literary Translation' conducted  by Sahitya Akademi at New Delhi from 20th December 1991 to 2nd January 1992.

11)  Paper 'The image of Panjabi Community in Hindi. Literature: Post 1984 Scenario' accepted for 'International Conference on Panjab Studies', held at Coventry University, U.K. on 27-28 June, 1994. Paper presented in absentia and  published.

12)  Stayed as 'Associate' at Inter University Centre, Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla during June 1992, October 1993 and July 1996 for three months to do independent research, participated in almost all the seminars during this period and made a presentation on 'Indian Reality: through the eyes of a Panjabi Poet" on 29th June, 1992 and 'The Significance of Rahul Sankartyayna' in October 1993. .

13) Presented paper on Panjabi poet Sukhinder (Panjabi) at a seminar  organised by Punjabi Department of Delhi University on 11th Feb., 1994.

14) Introduced the theme of seminar in inaugural session of national seminar on 'Dalit & Woman in Indian Literature' at Kurukshetra University on April 17, 1995.

15)  Presented paper on the novels of Jagdish Chander in a seminar on author on Oct. 14-15, 1995 at Jalandhar.

16)  Presented paper on 'Love theme in Gurbax Singh Preetlari' (Panjabi) in a seminar organised at Delhi on 23-25 April, 1995.

17)  Presented paper on 'Partition and Panjabi Novel' (English) in a National  seminar on 'Partition and Indian Literature' organised by School of International Studies, J.N.U., New Delhi on 24-25 March, 1996.

18)  Presented paper on 'Partition and Manto's stories' at a national seminar on Manto organised by Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla on 20-22 May, 1996.          

19)  Presented paper on 'Dalit Literature: Cultural Action for Freedom' (Hindi) at  National Seminar on 'Black and Dalit : some issues' held at Indian Institute of  Advanced Study, Shimla on 14-17 October, 1995.

20)  Presented paper on 'Renaissance and Hindi Literature' at a national seminar  held at GNDU, Amritsar on 21.2.1997.

21). Presented paper on 'Hemjyoti : mirror of leftist thinking' (Panjabi) at a  seminar in Bathinda on 20.4.1997.

22)  Presented paper on 'Nirala's G views on National language' (Hindi) at a national seminar on 'Nirala"" and Firaq' held at Indian Institute of Advanced  Study, Shimla on 15.9.1997.

23). Presented paper on 'Dalit Novel about Women' (Hindi) at a national seminar on  Dalit literature at Hazaribagh University on 2.10.1997.

24)  Presented paper on 'Women's Images in Katyayani’s poetry (Hindi) at a  national seminar in Panjab University, Chandigarh on 19.11.1997.

25)  Presented paper on Indian Dalit literature at a national seminar in Panjab  University, Chandigarh in Feb,1998.

26)  Presented paper on 'Freedom Struggle and Panjabi Literature' (Hindi) at a national workshop held at N.C.E.R.T., New Delhi in March 1998.

27)  Presented paper on 'Radical currents in post 1947 Panjabi Literature' (English)  at a national seminar held at Panjab University, Chandigarh on 26.2.1999.

28)   Presented paper on 'Social significance of Ravidas' (Hindi) at Madhav  College, Ujjain on 20.11.1999. (Honored at the occasion).

29)  Presented paper on 'Dalit Agenda for 21 st Century' (English) at Punjab Govt.  Seminar held at Panjab University, Chandigarh, on 30.11.1999.

30)  Participated in M.A. Course Writers, meet at IGNOU, New Delhi on 3/4 June, 1999.

31)  Participated in National Workshop on freedom struggle songs' at N.C.E.R.T., New Delhi in March 2000.

32)  Participated in M.A. Course Writers meet at IGNOU, New Delhi on the theme of 'Hindi Novel' on 16-17, November 2000.

33)  Presided over and delivered lecture (Hindi) at All India Dalit writers meeting held at Chandigarh on 11.11.2000.

34)  Presented paper on 'Dalit women's writing'  at a national seminar held at  Panjab  University, Chandigarh on 26.2.2002.

35)  Presented paper on 'Krishana Sobti's Zindaginama: (English) at Katha national  seminar held at India International centre, New Delhi in November 1999.

36)  Participated as Discussant  in national seminar on 'Women's Writing organised  by Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi at I.I.C. New Delhi in February 2001.

37)  Interacted with students /teachers/journalists/researchers at Hindi department of Kolkata University in October 2002.

38)   Presented paper on 'Communalism, partition and Jhootha Sach' (Hindi)  at a national seminar on Yashpal, organised by Sahitya Akademi at  Kolkata on 21.12.2003.

39)   Presented paper on Impact of Globalization on Panjabi literature at Jalandhar in April, 2000.

40)  Presented paper on Paash’s poetry at Kotkapura in 1989.

41)  Presented paper on 'The Identity of Pro-people literature' (Punjabi) at Panjab University, Chandigarh in 1978.          

42)  Presented paper on'Modern Punjabi Poetry at Rampura Phul in 1973.

43)  Presented paper on language question at Jalandhar in October 1999.

44)  Participated in N.C.E.R.T. workshop on syllabus on 19-23 January 1999.

45)  Made presentation on Translation at Sahitya Akademi on 21/8/04.

46)  Participated in Summer school on 'Working of Mind' held at Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla from 3rd June to 23rd June 2000.

47) Presented paper on Prem Chand’s novel ‘Rangbhumi; at A.M.U. Aligarh.on 13/3/05

48) Made presentation as ‘On Dalit Literature’ at a seminar in Panjab University,Chandigarh on’Ambedkar’s Philosophy and Dalit Liberation’ held on 28/3/5-

49)Presented paper in Punjabi on ‘Contemporary literary Scene and poetry of Prof. Mohan Singh’, held at Punjabi University, Patiala on29/3/05.                                            

50)Presented paper on ‘Dalit discourse in Prem Chand’ writings’ in an international Seminar on Prem Chand held at Delhi by Sahitya Akademi on 27th Oct.’05.

B) Presiding over the sessions in seminars , conferences etc.

1) Presided over inaugural session of national convention of Dalit writers at New Delhi in April 2002.     

2) Presided over and delivered lecture at a function in memory of Shaheed Bhagat Singh at Yamunanagar on 24.3.2002.

3)  Presided over and delivered lecture at Writers Conference at Shivpuri(M.P.) on 26/12/04.

4) Presided over and delivered lecture in a seminar on Dalit Literature (Panjabi) held at Panjabi Bhavan, Ludhiana on 30.7.2000.

5) Presided over a session on a national seminar on Dalit literature at Allahabad on 11.4.1999.

6) Presided over and delivered lecture at Dalit writers meet at Hoshiarpur in May 1998.

7). Presided over a session and delivered lecture at Dalit Writers meet at Chandigarh in November 1999.

8) Presided over a session  of a national seminar on Prem Chand at A.M.U.Aligarh on 12/3/05.

9) Presided over session on ‘Prem Chand:Dalit Discourse’ and delivered address. At a national seminar on Prem Chand at Vanasthli Vidyapeeth, Vanasthli.

c) Delivering Lecturers as Resource Person in U.G.C sponsored Refresher Course for University/College Teachers

1) Delivered two lectures on ."Hindi Novel' as Resource person at a Refresher Course held by Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi in April, 1994.

2) Delivered lecture as Resource person in refresher course 'On Novel' held by Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar in October 1994.

3) Delivered two lectures on 'Novels by Nirala' (Hindi) as Resource person in Refresher Course in Hindi held at G.N.D.U., Amritsar on 18.3.1997.

4)  Delivered two lectures as resource person at Refresher Course held at G.N.D.U Amritsar on 1.9.1999.

5)  Delivered lecture on Dalit Literature at Refresher Course in P.U. Chandigarh on 20/3/04.

D) Delivering Lecturers meetings etc. in various seminars/ conferences/literary

1)  Delivered lecture on Bhagat Singh's thought at Punjabi University, Patiala on 23rd March, 1994.

2)  Delivered lecture at State level Hindi Day function organised by Language Department, Punjab on October16, 1995 at Jalandhar.

3)  Delivered lecture on Bhagat Singh and Paash (Hindi) at Paash Library Karnal  on 23.3.1996.

4)   Delivered lecture on 'Impact of October Revolution on Indian Literature' at Chandigarh on 21.11.1996.

5)   Delivered lecture on 'Ghadar Party Movement in present context' at Baude village (Distt. Moga) on 21.12.1992.

6)   Delivered lecture on Paash's poetry (Punjabi) at Punjab University, Chandigarh on 9.4.1997.

7)   Delivered lecture on Bhagat Singh's Jail note book (Panjabi) at Moga on 7.5.2000 (Honoured on the occasion)

8)  Delivered lecture on Ghadrite poetry in Panjabi at Jalandhar on 9.8.2001.            

9)  Delivered lecture on 'Prem Chand and Godaan' (Hindi) at Mohindra College, Patiala on 19.1.2002.

10)  Delivered lecture on Prem Chand Thiruvananthpuran on 27.1.2002 at kerala Hindi Parishad

11)  Delivered lecture on 'Secular tradition of Bhagat Singh' at Karnal on 23.3.2002.

12) Delivered speech at Awardees meet by Sahitya Akademi Translation Prize winners on 20.8.2002 at New Delhi.

13)  Delivered lecture at Hindi Department, NEHU Shillong in October, 2002.

14) Delivered lecture on Muktibodh's poetry at Hindi Department of Jodhpur  University in November 2003.

15) Delivered lecture on 'Future of literature (Hindi) at G.M.N. College  Ambala Cantt on 23.11.2003.

16)   Delivered lecture at Dalit Writers’s Conference at Delhi on 24/4/04.

17)  Delivered Lecture on Bhagat Singh ona29/9/05 at Tapti Hostel,JNU.

18)  Delivered Lecture on writer Amrita Pritam on4/12/05 at Kaveri,JNU

19)  Delivered lecture on Sajjad Zaheer on 17/1/06 at Sutlej hostel,JNU

20)  Spoke on my two books at ‘Writers Forum’ meet by JNUTA on 25/01/06.

21)  Delivered lecture on ‘Hindi-Punjabi relations in historical perspective’ At Kolkata on 4/3/06, while ‘Apni Bhasha’ award.

22) Spoke on ‘Displacement and culture of resistance’ at a seminar by Jan Sanskriti Manch in Delhi on 23/04/06.


1)  Participated in Debates, Declamation and Poetical contests at University level during student  days.

2)  Selected by Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) to teach Hindi at Guyana under 'Teaching Hindi Abroad' Scheme for (1990-92), could not avail due to family circumstances.

3)  Creative interest in literature and other art forms. Wrote many poems and few Short stories

4)  Interested in other cultures and in comparative study of literature / culture.

5)  Selected as Professor in Hindi at Panjab University, Chandigarh in July,  1998.

6)      Member Hindi Advisory Council,National Book Trust for(2005-07)



DI: Books Criticism


TITLE                                                       Publishers                              YEAR

1.Yashpal ke Upanyason                    Prakashan Sansthan,                  1986

Mein Rajnitik Chetna                         New Delhi

(The Political

Consciousness in the

Novels of Yashpal).


2.'Pratinidhi Hindi Upanyas'                Haryana Sahitya,                        1989

(Critical Analysis of                          Akademi, Chandigarh

Representative Hindi Novel



3.Dalit Sahitya Ke Agardoot:             Aadhar Prakashan ,                     1998 

Guru Ravidas                                  Panchkula 


4.Yashpal Ke Upanyas                      Prakashan Sansthan,                     2002

                                                   New Delhi


5.Sahitya Sanskriti ka                      Swaraj Prakashan                        2002

Pragatishal Samajshastriya                Delhi



6. Kavita Ke Manviya Sarokar            Shilpayan, Delhi                              2006





7.Bhagat Singh aur Unke                   Rajkamal Prakashan                  1986/87

Sathiyon Ke Dastavej                       New Delhi

(The documents of

Bhagat Singh and his



8.Vartman ke Rubru                          Vaani Prakashan                          2000             

(Selected Prose and                         New Delhi

Evaluation of Paash)


9.Dalit Aur Ashwet                           Indian Institute                            2001

Sahitya                                         of Advanced Study,



10.BhagatSingh ke Sampuran'Dastavej   Aadhar, Panchkula                      2004


11.Hindi Patarkarita:Vividh Aayam        Punjabi University, Patiala            2006


12.Yashpal Ke Upnyas: Vividh Preprkshya          -do-                            2006




13.Beech Ka Raasta Nahi                     Rajkamal Prakashan                1989                                          

Hota                                                  New Delhi


14.Samay o Bhai Samay                      -DO- (National Prize                   1993

                                                         For Translation)



15.Lahu Hai Ke Phir'Bhi Gata                 Parikalpana                                1998

hai                                                  Prakashan,Lucknow       


16.Jab Zanziren Tootengi                    Samvad Prakashan,                     2002



17.Sampooran Kavitayen                     Aadhar Prakashan                       2002

(Paash)                                            Panchkula                        


18.'Kabhi Nahin Socha Tha'                  Saaransh Prakashan ,                   1998

 (Surjit Patar)                                    New Delhi (National        

                                                      Award..for year..2001     

                        -                             of Central Hindi                           

                                                      Directorate, New                         


Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was born in Allabahad on November 14, 1889. He received his early education at home under private tutors. At the age of fifteen, he went to England and after two years at Harrow, joined Cambridge University where he took his tripos in Natural Sciences. He was later called to the Bar from Inner Temple. He returned to India in 1912 and plunged straight into politics. Even as a student, he had been interested in the struggle of all nations who suffered under foreign domination. He took keen interest in the Sinn Fein Movement in Ireland. In India, he was inevitably drawn into the struggle for independence.

In 1912, he attended the Bankipore Congress as a delegate, and became Secretary of the Home Rule League, Allahabad in 1919. In 1916 he had his first meeting with Mahatma Gandhi and felt immensely inspired by him. He organised the first Kisan March in Pratapgarh District of Uttar Pradesh in 1920. He was twice imprisoned in connection with the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920-22.

Pt. Nehru became the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee in September 1923. He toured Italy, Switzerland, England, Belgium, Germany and Russia in 1926. In Belgium, he attended the Congress of Oppressed Nationalities in Brussels as an official delegate of the Indian National Congress. He also attended the tenth anniversary celebrations of the October Socialist Revolution in Moscow in 1927. Earlier, in 1926, at the Madras Congress, Nehru had been instrumental in committing the Congress to the goal of Independence. While leading a procession against the Simon commission, he was lathi-charged in Lucknow in 1928. On August 29, 1928 he attended the All-Party Congress and was one of the signatories to the Nehru Report on Indian Constitutional Reform, named after his father Shri Motilal Nehru. The same year, he also founded the ‘Independence for India League’, which advocated complete severance of the British connection with India, and became its General Secretary.

In 1929, Pt. Nehru was elected President of the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress, where complete independence for the country was adopted as the goal. He was imprisoned several times during 1930-35 in connection with the Salt Satyagraha and other movements launched by the Congress. He completed his ‘Autobiography’ in Almora Jail on February 14, 1935. After release, he flew to Switzerland to see his ailing wife and visited London in February-March, 1936. He also visited Spain in July 1938, when the country was in the throws of Civil War. Just before the court-break of the Second World War, he visited China too.

On October 31, 1940 Pt. Nehru was arrested for offering individual Satyagraha to protest against India’s forced participation in war. He was released along with the other leaders in December 1941. On August 7, 1942 Pt. Nehru moved the historic ‘Quit India’ resolution at the A.I.C.C. session in Bombay. On August 8,1942 he was arrested along with other leaders and taken to Ahmednagar Fort. This was his longest and also his last detention. In all, he suffered imprisonment nine times. After his release in January 1945, he organized legal defence for those officers and men of the INA charged with treason. In March 1946, Pt. Nehru toured South East Asia. He was elected President of the Congress for the fourth time on July 6, 1946 and again for three more terms from 1951 to 1954.

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